adhd statistics worldwide 2019

Although ADHD is the most studied behavioral disorders of childhood in developed countries, few studies have been conducted in Ethiopia. The reason why the risks for ADHD symptoms are greater among children who are first in the birth order might be due to poor mother-to-child attachment. A study using a community-based cross-sectional design was conducted among children aged 6 to 17 years old living in rural areas of the Girja district, Guji zone, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia, from May 09 to June 02, 2015. R. Thomas, S. Sanders, J. Doust, E. Beller, and P. Glasziou, “Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis,”, E. G. Willcutt, “The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review,”, M. Odenwald, F. Neuner, M. Schauer et al., “Khat use as risk factor for psychotic disorders: a cross-sectional and case-control study in Somalia,”, S. N. Visser, M. L. Danielson, R. H. Bitsko et al., “Trends in the parent-report of health care provider-diagnosed and medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: United States, 2003–2011,”, K. Larson, S. A. Russ, R. S. Kahn, and N. Halfon, “Patterns of comorbidity, functioning, and service use for US children with ADHD, 2007,”, F. Catalá-López, S. Peiró, M. Ridao, G. Sanfélix-Gimeno, R. Gènova-Maleras, and M. A. Catalá, “Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in Spain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies,”, L. A. Rohde, C. Szobot, G. Polanczyk, M. Schmitz, S. Martins, and S. Tramontina, “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a diverse culture: do research and clinical findings support the notion of a cultural construct for the disorder?”, C. Montiel, J. This may be due the anatomical nature of maleness which is a risk for ADHD; a former study explained that the slightly larger heads of males might have put males more susceptible to pressure and head injury at birth [34]. Based on DSM-IV screening of 11,422 adults for ADHD in 10 countries in the Americas, Europe and the Family-related factors like mother’s smoking and drinking behavior, nonvaginal delivery, and late starting of school discussed in [25]; watching television/playing video games, participation in sports, and two-parent family structure discussed in [26]; and parental psychiatric disorders, previous abortion, unwanted pregnancy, history of trauma, cesarean delivery, substance use during pregnancy, head trauma, and epilepsy discussed in [27] all contributed to the risk of ADHD. A mean worldwide prevalence of ADHD of ~2.2% overall (range: 0.1–8.1%) has been estimated in children and adolescents (aged <18 years). This estimate was associated with significant variability. Untreated ADHD increases the risk for future complications such as poor academic performance and learning delay, low self-esteem, poor social skills, and increased susceptibility to physical injury in childhood [28]. Then, it was coded, entered, and cleaned before and during data processing by using EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 for analysis. Therefore prevention, early detection, and management of modifiable risk factors are important for decreasing the prevalence of ADHD. This study showed no significant association between parents’ education and developing ADHD in children, which was in line with some studies [11, 20]. and malnutrition which are commonly associated with mothers with a poor socioeconomic status. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. The prevalence rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children was 7.3%. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) estimates that between 3 and 5% of the population has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD. The most common cause: death of a parent. In the multivariate metaregression model, diagnostic criteria, source of information, requirement of impairment for A new device for treating ADHD in children The FDA-cleared device produced a meaningful reduction in ADHD symptoms in a clinical trial By Zara Greenbaum July/August 2019, Vol 50, No. Maternal health status during pregnancy was assessed by whether the mother was sick as severe as hospitalized during pregnancy. Thus, 7.2% of this total population is 129 million—a rough estimate of the number of children worldwide who have ADHD. ADHD is associated with sex, living with single parents, child birth order/rank, and low socioeconomic status of the family. Many reports estimate that anywhere from 5% to 8% of school-age kids have the disorder. Thus, age-specific information about the magnitude of ADHD is very important in low-income countries to frame appropriate treatment guidelines. The US The prevalence of ADHD was reported to be 6.9% in Egypt [15], 3.2 to 23.15% in Nigeria [16, 17], 6.3% in Kenya [18], 6% in Congo [19], 19.7% in Egypt [20], and 1.5% in Ethiopia among children aged 5 to 14 years [21]. On the other hand, this finding was lower than in Venezuela, 10.03% [10]; in Saudi Arabia [11] and in Jeddah, 11.6% [12]; in Iran, 17%-25.8% [13]; in Nigeria, 23.15% [16]; and in Egypt, 19.7% [20]. There are various sources for statistical information on ADHD. The incidence of ADHD is higher in some states than others. Worldwide ADHD Rates Are Higher Than Ever, And It Might Be America's Fault By Carolyn Gregoire 11/24/2014 04:05pm EST | Updated November 24, 2014 Created with Sketch. The behavioral disturbance of children with ADHD significantly impairs their social, academic, or occupational functioning. In a recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the prevalence rate of ADHD was 6.8% in US children aged 3-17 years and has increased by 21.8% between 2003 and 2007 [5]. CHADD does not endorse products, services, publications, medications, or treatments, including those advertised in any CHADD publications, webinars or podcasts. Regarding family size, 68.3% (845) of the families had greater than four children in the house. Majority of the children, 1208 (97.6%), were Oromo by ethnicity and 1003 (81%) were Protestant by religion (Table 1). 2.4 million children aged 6–11 years. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Funding was obtained from Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital. A. Stawicki, M. D. Rappley, and A. Children aged 6 to 17 years old who had informants present during the study period and children with a permanent residence in the Girja district were included. Conclusion. In other words, the percentage of people with autism is 1%. The twenty kebeles (the smallest administrative unit) in the district were classified as a cluster. The prevalence of ADHD in the adult population is between 3% and 4% but the majority of these individuals are undiagnosed. This finding is in line with those of other studies showing that the separation of the child from one or both parents early in life is associated with ADHD [20, 37, 38]. Majority of the parents, 1202 (97.1%), were married and 36 (2.9%) were divorced/widowed. The findings of the present study on the prevalence rate of ADHD are consistent with the findings of the studies done in Egypt, which was 6.9% [15]; in Kenya, which was 6.3% [18]; in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which was 6% [19]; in Spain, which was 6.8% [8], in the USA, which was 8.2%, [7], and in studies pooled worldwide, which was 7.2% [3], as well as in review studies which were 5.9%-7.1%. However, it was in disagreement with a previous study [41] which has reported a high prevalence of ADHD in children from parents with a low level of education [42]. Variables with a value less than 0.2 during bivariate analysis were entered into multivariable logistic regression. Sociodemographic characteristics of children aged 6 to 17 years old. Study populations were randomly selected and children aged 6 to 17 years who lived in the study area for at least six months prior to the study were targeted. However, many children with the disorder continue to experience symptoms as they enter adolescence (60-85%) and adult life (40%) [29]. Subscribe to Global Stats by email We respect your privacy … From 86 review and meta-analysis studies, the prevalence of ADHD ranges from 5.9 to 7.1% in children and 5% in adults [4]. Out of the twenty kebeles, five kebeles were selected by simple random sampling. The prevalence of ADHD was 7.3% (90) (95% CI: 5.8%, 8.8%). ADHD Europe exists to advance the rights and dignities, and advocate for, all those affected by ADHD (and coexisting conditions) across Europe. An estimated 6.4 million American children ages 4 to 17 have been diagnosed with ADHD. One study that compared children with ADHD from 1998 to 2009 found that the rates of the condition seem to be increasing with time. The persistent behavioral disturbance in children with ADHD may lead to major psychiatric disorders during adulthood. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interests. ADHD was assessed in a subsample of 8,470 adolescents. Recall bias may be present for childhood health status before six years old, child feeding style in the first six months of life, maternal health status during pregnancy, and complication at delivery. The Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale was pretested for validity in our setup and was found to be easily understood by the participants with internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.8). In Iranian children aged 3 to 6 years, ADHD had a prevalence rate of 25.8% based on parents’ evaluation and 17% based on their teacher’s evaluation [13]. Sociodemographic characteristics of children’s family. The first child may also likely encounter some problems during pregnancy and labor such as the lack of prenatal care and narrow pelvis in primigravida that may lead to labor complications. They include national surveys conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), such as the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). . In 2019, the Export Price Index decreased to 99.5 on a … However, it ranges from 45.5% to 100.0% among special populations of children with possible organic brain injury [14]. A total of 5351 children aged 5 to 15 years old were living within 3573 households in the five selected kebeles. It has subscales for the inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and combined subtypes. According to its 2015 report, the CDC says the total number of Americans adults and children with ADHD continues to rise  up from 7.8 percent in 2003 to 9.5 percent in 2007 and 11 percent in 2011. Parents who have a child with Autism have a 2% to The Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale was used to collect the data. Treatment of ADHD becomes age specific, and the current most comprehensive available evidence based on treatment-related information suggests to clinicians, guideline developers, and policymakers the choice of ADHD medications across age groups [31]. The ADHD prevalence rate was found to be similar with global reports. 7 Print version: page 26 5 min read Children who had acquired scores of six or more on these items were consider as having ADHD based on the original scoring [33]. The child of a family with a low-level economic status was more than two times more likely to develop ADHD than a child of a family with a high-level economic status. Children with ADHD are at risk of dropping out of school, becoming pregnant as a teenager, and committing criminal behavior. It was found that the first-born child was more than two times more likely to develop ADHD than the second and above child in the birth order in this study. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of the University of Gondar and formal permission letters were taken from the Girja district administration and health offices. There are various sources for statistical information on ADHD. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. HM received the funding (No. Being male (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.81, 95% CI: (1.13, 2.91)); living with a single parent (AOR = 5.0, 95% CI: (2.35, 10.65)); child birth order/rank (AOR = 2.35, 95% CI: (1.30, 4.25)); and low family socioeconomic status (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI: (1.29, 4.59)) were significantly associated with ADHD. First, the data was checked for completeness and consistency. It has a total population of 62,083 (31,289 males and 30,793 females), 12,934 households, 19,357 children with ages from 5 to 15 years, and 20 kebeles (the smallest administrative unit). Logistic regression analysis was used to see statistically significant variables. Von Eye, “Family adversity in DSM-IV ADHD combined and inattentive subtypes and associated disruptive behavior problems,”, C. Frey, K. Wyss-Senn, and E. Bossi, “Subjective evaluation by parents and objective findings in former perinatal risk children,”, D. A. Pineda, F. Lopera, J. D. Palacio, D. Ramirez, and G. C. Henao, “Prevalence estimations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: differential diagnoses and comorbidities in a Colombian sample,”, J. L. S. Sauver, W. J. Barbaresi, S. K. Katusic, R. C. Colligan, A. L. Weaver, and S. J. Jacobsen, “Early life risk factors for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study,”, W. E. Pelham Jr, G. A. Fabiano, and G. M. Massetti, “Evidence-based assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents,”. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the CDC or the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Objective. Other similar studies among children aged 6 to 12 years reported that ADHD had a prevalence rate of 11.6% (of which 6.3% belonged to the inattention subtype, 2.2% belonged to the hyperactive/impulsive subtype, and 3.1% belonged to the combined ADHD subtype) [12]. A. Peña, I. Montiel-Barbero, and G. Polanczyk, “Prevalence rates of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a school sample of Venezuelan children,”, J. H. Al Hamed, A. The incidence of ADHD in school-aged children in the United States (US) is approximately 3-7%, which is around 1 in 20 children affected. The ADHD/HD worldwide-pooled prevalence was 5.29%. World health statistics 2019 summarizes recent trends and levels in life expectancy and causes of death (Section 1) and reports on the health and health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and associated targets (Sections 2–8). Behavioral disturbance was found to have a high implication for their social, academic, or occupational functioning. Generally, states in the Western parts of the United States have the lowest rates of ADHD. How attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is treated Although there's no cure for ADHD, it can be managed with appropriate educational support, advice and support for parents and affected children, alongside medicine, if necessary. However, females are more likely to present with more internalizing symptoms (such as being withdrawn, being in a state of anxiety, and having low self-esteem) than males [36]. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015 among children aged 6 to 17 years living in rural areas. But how many people does this translate to exactly? The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that 11 percent of all children in the U.S. aged 4-17 have been diagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADHD or ADD) that was roughly 6.1 million American children in 2016, a 43 percent increase since 2003. The authors would like to thank the study participants. The first-born child has a special position in some families and this may act as one of the risk factors for ADHD (e.g., overprotection and spoiling). China remained by far the largest single-country car market in the world but sales were down by a tenth in 2019. A. Sabra, and H. Bella, “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among male primary school children in Dammam, Saudi Arabia: prevalence and associated factors,”, M. Homidi, Y. Obaidat, and D. Hamaidi, “Prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder among primary school students in Jeddah City, KSA,”, A. Meysamie, M. D. Fard, and M.-R. Mohammadi, “Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in preschool-aged Iranian children,”, M. Bakare, “Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder (ADHD) among African children: a review of epidemiology and co-morbidities,”, T. Farahat, M. Alkot, A. Rajab, and R. Anbar, “Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder among primary school children in Menoufia Governorate, Egypt,”, C. E. Ofovwe, G. E. Ofovwe, and A. Meyer, “The prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among primary school pupils of Benin Metropolis, Nigeria,”, J. M. Chinawa, O. I. Odetunde, H. A. Obu, A. T. Chinawa, M. O. Bakare, and F. A. Ujunwa, “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a neglected issue in the developing world,”, S. Wamithi, R. Ochieng, F. Njenga, S. Akech, and W. M. Macharia, “Cross-sectional survey on prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at a tertiary care health facility in Nairobi,”, F. M. El-Nemr, H. S. Badr, and M. S. Salem, “Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children,”, Y. Ashenafi, D. Kebede, M. Desta, and A. Alem, “Prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders in Ethiopian children,”, E. Mick and S. V. Faraone, “Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,”, G. Polanczyk, M. S. de Lima, B. L. Horta, J. Biederman, and L. A. Rohde, “The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis,”, A. Malek, S. Amiri, M. Sadegfard, S. Abdi, and S. Amini, “Associated factors with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a case-control study,”, R. K. Lingineni, S. Biswas, N. Ahmad, B. E. Jackson, S. Bae, and K. P. Singh, “Factors associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children: results from a national survey,”, J. Golmirzaei, S. Namazi, S. Amiri et al., “Evaluation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder risk factors,”, V. A. Harpin, “The effect of ADHD on the life of an individual, their family, and community from preschool to adult life,”, S. Pliszka and AACAP Work Group on Quality Issues, “Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,”, I. Souza, M. A. Pinheiro, D. Denardin, P. Mattos, and L. A. Rohde, “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbidity in Brazil: comparisons between two referred samples,”, S. Cortese, N. Adamo, C. del Giovane et al., “Comparative efficacy and tolerability of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis,”, M. L. Wolraich, I. D. Feurer, J. N. Hannah, A. Baumgaertel, and T. Y. Pinnock, “Obtaining systematic teacher reports of disruptive behavior disorders utilizing DSM-IV,”, W. E. Pelham Jr, E. M. Gnagy, K. E. Greenslade, and R. Milich, “Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders,”, C. P. Ingram and W. C. Kvaraceus, “Selected references from the literature on exceptional children,”, F. E. Johnston, “Individual variation in the rate of skeletal maturation between five and eighteen years,”, B. L. Hoseini, M. A. Abbasi, H. T. Moghaddam, G. Khademi, and M. Saeidi, “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: a short review and literature,”, H. N. El-Tallawy, W. A. Hassan, A. This graph shows the stats of social media worldwide based on over 10 billion monthly page views. In other studies, the prevalence rate of ADHD has been reported to be 8.2% among children aged 6 to 17 years in the USA [7], 6.8% among children aged 6 to 17 years in Spain based on 14 observational studies [8], 5.8% among children aged 6 to 17 years in Brazil using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and 1.5% using the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) [9], and 10.03% among children aged 4 to 12 years in Venezuela [10]. Even though there are many studies conducted on the prevalence and risk factors of childhood ADHD in developed countries, limited studies have been conducted in East African, especially in Ethiopia. The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. ADHD subtypes clustered by sex are shown in Table 4. These autism statistics worldwide show some clear trends, but # 8 is truly . Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in childhood with long-term outcomes. Associated factors with ADHD among children aged 6 to 17 years. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 1302 participants. The information provided by CHADD’s National Resource Center on ADHD is supported by Cooperative Agreement Number NU38DD005376 funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Single parents were very common in the 17th and 18th centuries. . ADHD has a severe behavioral implication to the cognitive and social development among children. Association between the dependent and independent variables was assessed using logistic regression. There was a total of 640 males (51.7%), and 894 (72.2%) of the children were between the ages of 6 and 12 years. 3.3 million children aged 12–17 years. We included 1302 children for the study. Boys are nearly three times more likely to be diagno… The NCS-A was a nationally representative, face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years in the continental United States. The Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale has 45 items, but we used only 18 items for assessing ADHD in this study. Other clinical- and maternal-related factors are listed in Table 3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among Children Aged 6 to 17 Years Old Living in Girja District, Rural Ethiopia, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia, Department of Clinical Psychiatry, Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Debre Birhan Health Science College, Debre Birhan, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, Sociodemographic characteristics of the family, Child health status before 6 years of age, Child feeding style during the first six months, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder inattentive, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder hyperactive/impulsive, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Fourth Edition. ADHD usually presents during early childhood, and its diagnosis is most often made in school-aged children. Variables that have values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. From this, 57 (63.3%) were from the ADHD-IN subtype, 22 (24.5%) were from the ADHD-HI subtype, and 11 (12.2%) were from the ADHD-C subtype. The social and economic costs of ADHD in Australia iii Social and economic costs of ADHD The total social and economic costs of ADHD in 2019 were estimated to be $20.42 billion. Two nurses (degree holders) were employed to supervise, and five clinical nurses (diploma holders) who were also given training were employed for data collection. ADHD has three subtypes which includes the inattentive subtype, the hyperactive/impulsive subtype, and the combined subtype [2]. An estimated 6.4 million American children ages 4-17 have been diagnosed with ADHD. The worldwide pooled prevalence of ADHD for children aged 18 years and below was 7.2% from the systematic review and meta-analysis of 175 studies worldwide [3]. Confidentiality was maintained by omitting personal identification. Data was collected from parents or caretakers using the face-to-face interview technique using the Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale items that were translated to the local language (Afan Oromo). The incidence of ADHD is very important in low-income countries to frame appropriate treatment guidelines for assessing ADHD rural. Childhood in developed countries, few studies have been diagnosed with ADHD are risk. With possible organic brain injury [ 14 ] is actually a conservative estimate amongst circles of experts the,! At risk of having various psychiatric problems including ADHD governmental and non-governmental organizations such as world! 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