marrakesh vip treaty pdf

Questionable arguments about the substantive legal basis for ratification and the proper 547 0 obj <> endobj Asides from these, there are still other IP treaties awaiting domestication, like the Beijing Treaty on Audio-Visual Performances, 15 the Marrakesh VIP Treaty. endstream endobj startxref Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, 37(1), 139 – 174 . to the 2013 marrakesh vip treaty primer on international copyright and related rights jorgen blomqvist the international law on copyright and related primer on international primer on international copyright and related rights Oct 14, 2020 Posted By Catherine Cookson Publishing �Gn�b��ڥ� �7ҋ� ����v�|�w}/,��s�h�T�1���������:�m������9�gW�����h�j���͠?H�׻! endstream endobj 455 0 obj <>stream ; It is also called “Books for Blind” treaty. According to Wikipedia, the Marrakesh VIP Treaty is a treaty on copyright adopted in Marrakesh, Morocco, on 28 June 2013. According to IFLA, the federation shows where progress in implementation is needed to improve national laws. A Directive and a Regulation have been adopted for the implementation of the Marrakesh Treaty in EU law, to allow people with print disabilities to access more books and other print material in formats that are accessible to them. The member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) have been working together since 2008 to do something that will increase the number of accessible books: to create exemptions in copy ­ right law. Debbie Williams, a visually-impaired avid reader from Canada, is looking forward to reading more current titles in accessible format following the entry into force of the “books for blind” Marrakesh Treaty, which boosts access to books for hundreds of millions of people around the world who are blind, visually impaired or have a print disability. 1 IPA Guide to the Marrakesh Treaty A WIPO Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities, of 27 June 2013 Información del artículo Beyond the Marrakesh VIP Treaty: Typology of copyright access-enabling provisions for persons with disabilities. Marrakesh VIP Treaty Benefits: Implement an infrastructure for works in accessible format to: Increase efficiency in adapting works; Avoid duplicity of efforts; Remove barriers at national level; Remove barriers for cross-border exchange of works Increase the availability of accessible format works Make the best use of new technologies for the Article 3: Beneficiary Persons . Marrakesh VIP Treaty: Major Step for Accessibility Listen Light for the World and the National Union for People with Visual Impairment ( UN-ABPAM ), amongst other organisations, lobbied tirelessly for Burkina Faso to ratify the Marrakesh VIP Treaty, in order to make books accessible for visually impaired people. India has also begun implementation of the Marrakesh Treaty into its domestic laws through a multi- stakeholder approach: collaboration with key players i.e. This paper builds upon the evidence drawn from a scoping study on access to copyright works by persons with disabilities. The Marrakesh VIP Treaty (formally the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities, colloquially MVT) is a treaty on copyright adopted in Marrakesh, Morocco, on 28 June 2013. In this sense, the ABC is complementary to the Marrakesh Treaty, to the extent that it demonstrates some practical ways and challenges Ncube, Caroline B. and Reid, Blake Ellis and Oriakhogba, Desmond, Beyond the Marrakesh VIP Treaty: Typology of copyright access‐enabling provisions for persons with disabilities (February 19, 2020). endstream endobj startxref If you would like to express an opinion to either of Texas’ senators and need contact information, just call 1-252-9605 and ask a reader -800 consultant for contact information. endstream endobj 454 0 obj <>stream Section 5 identifies and analyzes the patterns and trends adopted by WIPO member states in formulating L&Es for persons with disabilities. In the case of the European Union (EU), where the parameters for national implementation have been set at EU Article 1: Relation to Other Conventions and Treaties . The European Union has joined the Marrakesh VIP Treaty in a big expansion in membership for the accord, which eases the creation and transfer across national boundaries of texts specially adapted for use by people with print disabilities. H��SMO�@��W�qפKg�m�!$�q�H���P�J #��;��b��Kye�}�c ���� �=v���u�x��ɋ�v�i���j���&�۝}��H�0�a��S����� ���s��Nj�&�P�K7���L�Z, d��VNN�e��8�o*"`ό�#�Z�E&K/x�%�b̖v�V ��F��b}��A/6TV�) w0�'�ӤhT��j���$�U��%�5��5��ئ��6�Y���aE��l�SV�. The Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled (Marrakesh Treaty) 1. The Marrakesh Treaty is a short title for the “Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled.” It is an international copyright treaty approved by member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in June 2013 in Marrakesh, Morocco (WIPO Summary). EU Joins Marrakesh VIP Treaty, Greatly Expanding Coverage . It identifies and discusses specific access‐enabling technologies for persons with aural, cognitive, physical, and visual disabilities and how they are affected by the exercise of exclusive rights. from scholars in the wake of the implementation of the Marrakesh VIP Treaty. h��Vmo�0�+�V�$�Si�Ԯ�M�iZ+��!���Ȓ)��{�.�I�n����ھ7?>�%61,6�I)a4L*\[�� S�#H�V0i���d21�Q,J��c>��Y��>�ߚ���K0�*��*/�0�O���+`S����Tev��R��_�㏄�\�)ϊ�v���� Page 9 AGREEMENT ESTABLISHING THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION The Parties to this Agreement, Recognizing that their relations in the field of trade and economic endeavour should be conducted with a view to raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and a large and steadily growing ����dq�vۧ�rr�o��ݵQ�|O)�+U!�4�N] �X[S�a̋�)+�=� �sJ0�@ќ��(?W.Z?f\|�G�Ǐ9�uq��Ӄ-�%��/���ǼS1/ha. 0 (1) an authorized entity located in a country that is a Party to the Marrakesh Treaty; or (2) an eligible person in a country that is a Party to the Marrakesh Treaty, if prior to the exportation of such copies or phonorecords, the authorized entity engaged in the exportation did not *����L�Iz{���Mì4|�����>)���E�*1U_�GF%dcJA d��7y��Ű���%i��@��QU���H��f���U}���r��Ϛ�ȗ�r]dL�!��wLF�=�"�:�m���w���p&^ݛ�y(�C�g�]Fp&H�j6۹Ղ�MQ6aQA��LkC�$}f�b*jm$��I�qD�1O�σ9�x}�i��h^�Y�O8�>d}y�����B�����9��p8\8��;��(ݳ���6/T�N���}T"B-#�?Ÿ{�~_I�p��S��жZ�pJ��Ύѭ�����0��҆��]��16���Å��Nk�b��4治O�L �A��n�#��^B���ڮO��\g���9���m�����W�+�I��Ԛ$�`�璪�+�қ�z����d_�1R �Rm_�ԡ�eUG ��|�v�~_uY�3Zp�#�� �#v�Ѻ�@u@"����=VE�.��"�:����[�4���d������U;���>���U��}^!ZV�c�~T��p ��1+�>���jV � d�b In this sense, the ABC is complementary to the Marrakesh Treaty, to the extent that it demonstrates some practical ways and challenges � � �t]�(�q�+`�n]6Lȳ����n���J\�f��ɐI�'����lddd���a�1 Saba IP is active in all areas of prosecution, registration, and enforcement of intellectual property rights, and provide a full range of … 555 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<9E570F6D67DE4849815FFB26633ACF05>]/Index[547 21]/Info 546 0 R/Length 58/Prev 67020/Root 548 0 R/Size 568/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream 7 This has led to the launch of Sugamya Pustalaya, India’s largest collection of online accessible books with over 200,000 volumes of material. endstream endobj 548 0 obj <>/Metadata 34 0 R/Outlines 76 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 543 0 R/StructTreeRoot 169 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 549 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 550 0 obj <>stream H��TMO�0��W�� %�I��!��� ��8�-���!>�=���ѱ�9�_b?�W ȏZ�!�� The Marrakesh Treaty is largely modeled on existing U.S. law. t~�2�:��o 567 0 obj <>stream Ma9����m�GU��j~����9&>a1?�g�2[6�H����ն����Eppk��4ɂO��n�\�uV6 �O�>6��M^~nw�e� (~vr2J�� The Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled, or “Marrakesh Treaty,” provides for the exchange of accessible-format books across international borders by organizations that serve people who are blind, visually impaired, and print disabled. H���Ko�@���sܭ��}�E��$U��ȷ��ۆ Implementation of Treaty, Monitoring Report. About our Marrakesh Treaty … • Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons who are Blind, Visually Impaired, or otherwise Print Disabled –See www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/diplconf/en/vip_dc/vip_dc_8.pdf •Recently, certainly in library circles, Marrakesh Treaty is taken to refer to this development, but there are other Marrakesh agreements! The Marrakesh VIP Treaty (formally the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities, colloquially MVT) is a treaty on copyright adopted in Marrakesh, Morocco, on 27th June 2013. Saba IP Operates through an extensive network of branches and representative offices across the Middle East, Africa and their neighboring regions. h��_o�6�� It is intended to reduce the global shortage of print materials in accessible formats for the many millions of persons who are blind, visually impaired, or have other print disabilities (such as physical limitations that prevent holding a book). This Guide had been created as accessible PDF thanks to the collaboration with Fondazione LIA ... (VIPs/PWPDs) can access an estimated 5% of all written information and literary works (e.g. Marrakesh Treaty or Marrakesh VIP Treaty is formally known as Marrakesh treaty to facilitate Access to Published works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities. 6 This Guide is adapted by kind permission from ‘The Marrakesh Treaty: an EIFL guide for libraries’, designed for countries looking to implement the Treaty directly. the exemptions provided by the treaty. governmental bodies, authorized entities, etc. If you need immediate assistance, call 877-SSRNHelp (877 777 6435) in the United States, or +1 212 448 2500 outside of the United States, 8:30AM to 6:00PM U.S. Eastern, Monday - Friday. 9Catherine Saez, ‘Interview with WIPO Director General Francis Gurry on New WIPO Treaty’, H���QO�0���)��j��v[�cL�>��0q*7"���Z�h�Ks������- �x F���-\\�&�x2�����&C��H��� $J.�0�b���X���F�3&��X!$�����:N��#��=~�� ORIGINAL: ENGLISH DATE: JULY 31, 2013 . The Marrakesh Treaty was aimed to align international copyright law with the precepts of the CRPD. Setting its sights on the Marrakesh Treaty: The US role in alleviating the book famine for persons with print disabilities. While the attention to the Treaty is welcome and important, the copyright literature is missing a holistic framework for understanding the role of copyright law in facilitating and inhibiting the … The Marrakesh Treaty, an international copyright treaty that is administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is meant to change this status quo. books, websites, traffic … http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is MARRAKESH VIP TREATY? However, the Marrakesh Treaty fell short of this goal to the extent that it only covers the making of accessible format copies of print‐ and text‐based works for … governmental bodies, authorized entities, etc. Marrakesh, June 17 to 28, 2013 MARRAKESH TREATY TO FACILITATE ACCESS TO PUBLISHED WORKS FOR PERSONS WHO ARE BLIND, VISUALLY IMPAIRED, OR OTHERWISE PRINT DISABLED adopted by the Diplomatic Conference VIP/DC/8 REV. Examine why India’s role in its implementation is hailed as model for other countries to follow. 473 0 obj <>stream bringing the wipo internet, audiovisual performances and marrakesh vip treaties in tune with the access to knowledge and development demands in nigeria By Desmond Osaretin Oriakhogba Get PDF (301 KB) So, why is this important to digital publishers? The Marrakesh Treaty is an agreement among countries to adapt their domestic copyright laws as needed to enable wider dissemination nationally and internationally of published materials in formats that are accessible for people with … As of October 31, 2019, the Marrakesh Treaty has either been ratified or acceded by 61 member states (WIPO, 2019). They use the ‘exceptions-plus’ option Proposed Regulation creates additional obligations for authorised intermediaries, but not applicable to intra-EU exchanges. i�qTmT�H9bW�~JQ�c�C�J'�Y��-���>����{ȍ�v�|�1�^�M+���ni��,#�Z��Y� ���ӭ��^�&&��QH �Gzqm�kX̥钩j��,�.�ȴ>zUeܻ�g�����{�I~�1g�r��U(�k���0ѓm�jA��|n{������Nh+����'\��/��4�f�:�����ȭVQw�$��M��{q�����t���������qk��\��5(�Pb����of�i�Yy�ĺ��?��҅Kv�9��-��hC��/Z��f`uI:!� ��Z�2b��� 0t��� � �V� http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is MARRAKESH VIP TREATY? endstream endobj 451 0 obj <>/Metadata 35 0 R/Outlines 77 0 R/Pages 446 0 R/StructTreeRoot 113 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 452 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 453 0 obj <>stream h�bbd``b`� $g� �rH07�$XA�! Rather, this approach may be the most politically 1.7 The Marrakesh VIP Treaty 1 The Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled (the Marrakesh VIP Treaty) is the latest addition to the body of international copyright treaties … Marrakesh, June 17 to 28, 2013 . Brasil ratifica Tratado de Marraqueche (22865375143).jpg 3,840 × 2,560; 3.36 MB The Marrakesh VIP Treaty is formally known as the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Disabilities. ADOPT the Marrakesh Programme for 2018-2020, which comprises the present Political Declaration as well as the targeted, operational Action Plan, and which is based on a regional approach whilst also respecting state sovereignty; AGREE to align the said Programme with the five domains of the JVAP in order to maintain It is an international copyright treaty approved by member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in June 2013 in Marrakesh, Morocco (WIPO Summary).The main goal of the Marrakesh Treaty is to increase availability of accessible formats of published materials, including books and magazines, to print disabled people across borders. Technical Report (PDF Available) ... 2014) the Marrakesh VIP Treaty, the Israeli Supreme Court's decision in HCJ 8536/11 Bizchut -The Israel Human Rights Centre v Ministry of Education. Rather, he sees minimal technical changes being undertaken only to meet presidential requirements. However in principle, the Minister does not appear to be overwhelmed by any international pressure to either withdraw the Bill or completely re-draft it. The Marrakesh Treaty is an agreement among countries to adapt their domestic copyright laws as needed to enable wider dissemination nationally and internationally of published materials in formats that are accessible for … 8World Intellectual Property Organization, Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities, adopted in Marrakesh on 27 June 2013, VIP/DC/8 REV. An international copyright treaty will give blind Americans access to millions of published works and improve the distribution of … VIP/DC/8 REV. overview of the Marrakesh Treaty's key legal and policy innovations and its relationship to international human rights in Section 4. %%EOF The Marrakesh Treaty, an international copyright treaty that is administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is meant to change this status quo. Bit of a mouthful, so it’s generally referred to as the Marrakesh VIP Treaty. endstream endobj 457 0 obj <>stream Download Treaty Of Marrakesh Migration doc. Download Treaty Of Marrakesh Migration pdf. 463 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<78ECEE6F756621479CBC361C4646652C>]/Index[450 24]/Info 449 0 R/Length 72/Prev 59422/Root 451 0 R/Size 474/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream What does MARRAKESH VIP TREATY mean? India has also begun implementation of the Marrakesh Treaty into its domestic laws through a multi- stakeholder approach: collaboration with key players i.e. Concern over international treaty implications; To stay. What does MARRAKESH VIP TREATY mean? page 2 It shows how, and the extent to which states' ratification of the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled (Marrakesh Treaty) has enabled the making of accessible format of copyright works for persons with disabilities. Marketa Trimble, The Marrakesh Puzzle, 45 IIC 768 (2014), DOI 10.1007/s40319-014-0252-5 2 provides should assist executive and legislative experts as they seek optimal methods for implementing the Treaty, particularly the Treaty’s cross-border access rules. Limitations on exclusive rights: Reproduction for blind or other people with disabilities (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, it is not an infringement of copyright for an authorized entity to H��S�n1��W�(Y��.� ���)�$@͡�a:��n�U�_��1��"ќG���yZf����G���4\\L�3�F�{ u��z���R���)˵��BY���G���B,�� p�}���!s/�������(��\S�$�/i1��>T�Z�Ql�p�������R� �I�/��V�|�P�kӪY�u�s���͟<0આô�Q:�|,?e�ǥQŃ,���uPp �/"��8� 4 This Guide is adapted by kind permission from ‘The Marrakesh Treaty: an EIFL guide for libraries’, designed for countries looking to implement the Treaty directly. This Treaty seeks to facilitate access to cultural content to for people who are blind, visually impaired or print disabled. Media in category "Marrakesh VIP Treaty" The following 7 files are in this category, out of 7 total. Children and the aftermath of children, as a better enjoy the majority of solidarity. Both proposals adopt the most generous provisions of Marrakesh Treaty. 6 ����L1w� I�H{�COq-�/��T[A��̣�lLacE5>TL��k���~���>�5}y�G�X� -�6a���չ�ZٶEs���.\� ��t�f1Bn�͒*�� ז�7&?t�J��2�A,�t��g��ӿ6n��qcO`ٴ�ה,駋�GS������g�>�6ݱ��H�i�٩�A�'_��d��7D́�������CU{�ΐ�J�m���w��D��;�™�n뷶�n�RRL��X�n��1%᱊�y����������� | The Marrakesh Treaty came into force on September 30, 2016, 3 months after 20 eligible parties had deposited their instruments of ratification or accession (Art 18). Ss�w`.��7��ݕy���1�4|���w���C�_�H�� � Pretext of this year: this in the seventieth anniversary of the treaty. endstream endobj 456 0 obj <>stream Total downloads of all papers by Desmond Oriakhogba. Unfortunately, despite undertaking a political commitment when signining it, the EU has yet to ratify and implement the Marrakesh exceptions. %%EOF endstream endobj 458 0 obj <>stream 450 0 obj <> endobj History was made when 20 countries ratified the Marrakesh Treaty, which came into force in September 2016. �����W@Q���-��u��9Z"T�[�o?ɣ)Y�Sm@7 Rǻ�Q�^��a]S.$Q�!�k9�;3]n8h)���$���u����&R��kz�X̫]}�n�7=��W���bI���]M���f�P�t1#�'F߽�#��_N�3�m?�tyY�>9�uM��>��͗�eWu5]U�o��^����U��g��E��k���w�-��\��3a4=o��=߬��|���L֏��1������i��0�6U��׼�j�������k�ݶ�V��(P}��3F/��mV��][F�]���v���޶y�6[�G�Z�ү 6L�s�Y�6����~lֳ��I���v�-����;�[- The Marrakesh VIP is an international treaty administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) which would obligate signatory countries to create mandatory limitations and exception to their copyright laws pertaining to “the right of reproduction, the right of distribution, and the right of making available to the public…to facilitate the availability of works in accessible format … Home / News. >e��k�2� _ k���:����u�d����W{�,̥�O�\���6�M ���({�w��m))TM�%�k��ԝ$�>�:�5{�hv����i�H"tM�_��lXI��R��/����A�g8���Zq��&��Q�� b])! %PDF-1.5 %���� October 2, 2018. Marrakesh Treaty as a triumph for the social model To become a member, a state must deposit an "instrument" declaring its intention with the Director General of WIPO.This instrument must be signed by the Head of State, the Head of … �v��Z In April 2015, the European Union “celebrates” one year since the signature of the Marrakesh Treaty. Marrakesh VIP Treaty at a practical level. India ratified Marrakesh VIP Treaty on 24 July 2014 and was the first country to do so.The Marrakesh VIP Treaty is to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities. Diplomatic Conference to Conclude a Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities . "��g BDh ��JL���@#1�� �� The Marrakesh Treaty is largely modeled on existing U.S. law. Discuss the significance of the Marrakesh VIP Treaty. Article 2: Definitions . We are not suggesting that this necessarily is the best approach for achieving the Treaty’s objective of increasing the availability of accessible format copies to the print disabled. 0 the Marrakesh VIP Treaty . Marrakesh VIP Treaty at a practical level. l�D}|�Ό�1NBrh�G;O��� F�/(>D��\*+��G��X/�J�&H����(���@�Ci^�9Y�H�,~D Characterize entire episode raises three aspects of companies, The Marrakesh VIP Treaty is a treaty on copyright adopted in Marrakesh, Morocco, on 27th … It considers Marrakesh Treaty required L&E and those catered for Negotiations led to the historic adoption in June 2013 of the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access In the case of the European Union (EU), where the parameters for national implementation have been set at This paper builds upon the evidence drawn from a scoping study on access to copyright works by persons with disabilities. Preamble . In the environment leading up to the Treaty, countries were more likely to conclude the Best Paper Award (April 2016) | “Removing Barriers to Literacy: Marrakesh VIP Treaty” Dear All Recently I published a conference paper in TIFR-BOSLA National Conference on Future Librarianship Innovation for Excellence which was held on 22-23 April 2016 Mumbai India. h�b```�,f#>��03�0p4L�daXp�vQ �\�;���;��d��*�����y�gŖsN[N��`h�"�l�@�����fbv� �2/Ê�]N���3��d9σ�j���� ��� �,�R���h Qƨ` Wd%� Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled* CONTENTS . the Marrakesh Treaty highlighted.) The Marrakesh Treaty – What it is and Why It’s Important. h�bbd``b`�$�� ��H�����@��H��22m�I#��_� � �7 Regulation to implement Marrakesh obligations. 0 Z�v :��ַq�s��uP��Y��ST� qQ�q(�[��'�*�Iڋ�T,pm��� 2Ҧ�b�q�'��K��Yl�Œ�Oz������I�]����ә� .�\ �j ��ΚG~���>5�� *�2��Щ�P�T�Gm���V��o靿�A�޾�uM���%���So��Hb۩_G����v� =d5 W3�o�DD�5���{ړV"1�S!Y+"�w��H��"1�5�x=�����cb}���p����e/�6lX�/�x՘�/>0WHZ��=��o�X|#J�����'����g3����v -�)\ ������I��t8}���[����N-�gH����C� ��s This Treaty makes mandatory for contracting parties to provide exceptions or limitations in their national legislation to the right […] TfQ�h` ��-K All WIPO member states are eligible to become party to the Marrakesh Treaty. Well, per the Association of American Publishers, on October 10, 2018, legislation was enacted for U.S. implementation of the Marrakesh Treaty. Separately, the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published the 2018 edition of its monitoring report [pdf] of the implementation of the Marrakesh Treaty. It is intended to reduce the global shortage of print materials in accessible formats for the many millions of persons who are blind, visually impaired, or have other print disabilities (such as physical limitations that prevent holding a book). The Marrakesh VIP Treaty is currently undergoing hearings in the U.S. Senate and may come up for a ratification vote. MARRAKESH TREATY TO … %PDF-1.6 %���� h�b```�#�ʰ !�AAAF��� �*2���'�����a���w���]R p�`���d�O ��`��Q���E��>�Uv�?+��0����20\�� ����c`�Q �߁�R�����_$t�F � To Other Conventions and Treaties: this in the seventieth anniversary of the implementation of the Marrakesh Treaty! Celebrates ” one year since the signature of the Treaty multi- stakeholder approach: collaboration key... 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