axial compressor uses

The table above shows recommended protection transducers on a (6.6b). Other rows, called A further serious disadvantage is the large amount of rotor twist from root to tip, which adds to the expense of blade manufacture. In the axial compressor, the air flows parallel to the axis of rotation. In the figure on Centrifugal Compressors. 8.8. This also limits the downtime between start-ups of the turbines. The suction and the discharge ports on a liquid-ring compressor are located: 25,500. We do see a few engine swaps that retain the original General Motors/Frigidaire (DAG and R4), or the Ford Nippondenso compressors. The flow angles at the hub are. The trends for compressors are toward airfoils that are fewer (30–35 first-stage blades as compared to 40 earlier), thinner (thickness to chord ratio has decreased from 0.1 to 0.08), larger (airfoil diameter has increased from five to six ft to eight to 10 ft), and three-dimensional and controlled diffusion-shaped (3D/CDA). There are two main types of compressors used in modern jet engines; axial compressors are discussed on this slide, and centrifugal compressors are discussed on another slide. These are typically multistage axial compressors, consisting of several stages. Units resemble turbines; each pair of moving and stationary blade-rows forms a stage. A variation in the operating dynamics and stability of this design will be dominant in the axial direction. The compressor is a multistage unit as the amount of pressure increase by each stage is small; a stage consists of a row of rotating blades followed by a row of stator vanes. before it enters the burner. The stator blades in axial compressor can be arranged in all the following designs EXCEPT: on the rotor. The function of the impeller is to increase the energy level of the fluid by whirling it outward, thereby increasing the angular momentum of the fluid. Compressor blades continuously pass through the wakes of upstream Specifically, in refineries, axial flow compressors have replaced centrifugal units. Axial flow compressors tend to be long and thin rather than short and fat (like centrifugal compressors). A centrifugal compressor or pump consists essentially of a rotating impeller followed by a diffuser. S.L. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. A compressor gives a substantial rise in pressure to a flowing gas. Centrifugal pump and velocity triangles. The compression is achieved by applying inertial forces to the gas using rotating impellers. This arrangement matches the velocity of the jet nearer to the optimum requirements of the aircraft and results in higher propulsive efficiency, hence lower fuel consumption. The nomenclature and methods of describing compressor blade shapes are almost identical to that of aircraft wings. Both the static pressure and the velocity are increased within the impeller. The Axial-flow compressors use a series of fan-like rotating rotor blades to progressively compress the gasflow. S.L. Modern engines can use 10-15 compressor stages. The major difference is that the dominant orientation of process forces is parallel to the shaft. Figure 1-57. From the velocity diagram for the stage (e.g., Figure 5.2), the blade tip speed is. At the bottom of 8.9. There are additional important An axial flow compressor (Figures 4-13 and 4-14) consists of one or more rotor assemblies that carry blades of airfoil section. These compressors are not commonly used in industry. An axial flow compressor stage is designed to give free-vortex tangential velocity distributions for all radii before and after the rotor blade row. Radial readings will help in understanding the operating conditions, but will be less definitive than in other designs. There are also trends toward water injection at the inlet or between compressor sections that will likely affect airfoil erosion life. (6.1) we observe that as cθ2/r is always positive (excepting cθ = 0), so static pressure increases from root to tip. Compressor designers the figure is a computer generated figure of an entire axial The turbine rotor depicted in this figure has a low-pressure compressor followed by a high-pressure compressor. Thus, the work done is equal at all radii. These blades have smaller clearances and higher loading per stage (pressure ratio per stage from 1.14 to 1.18). These were built with a sheet-metal blade installed into a ring and locked by another ring. The dynamic forces generated by an axial-flow compressor are also similar to those of other rotating machinery. Thus, higher blade speeds and axial-velocity components are possible without exceeding the limiting value of 0.70–0.75 for the relative inlet Mach number. This differs from other rotating compressors such as centrifugal compressor, axi-centrifugal compressors and mixed-flow compressors where the fluid flow will include a "radial component" through the compressor. The purpose of the diffuser is to convert the kinetic energy of the fluid leaving the impeller into pressure energy. Axial compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-like airfoils to progressively compress a fluid. The angle im is the mean angle of incidence of the blade and has a somewhat different definition from that usually employed in the study of an isolated airfoil in a uniform stream. gas turbine engines, which are also called Here is an animated version of the axial compressor: How does an axial compressor work? has a large influence on total engine Axial compressors have a rotor that has rows of fan like blades allowing the airflow to move axially along the shaft. jet engines. This factor is not of nearly as much concern with helicopters, since they use smaller engines than airliners. R. Keith Mobley, in Fluid Power Dynamics, 2000. At the upper left is a picture of Hall Ph.D., in Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery (Sixth Edition), 2010, Consider the case of a compressor stage in which rcθ1 = K1 before the rotor and rcθ2 = K2 after the rotor, where K1 and K2 are constants. to the central shaft and rotate at high speed. And yes, a very few York/Tecumsehs are still on some restored classics. The lift acts normal to the velocity given by, In this velocity the quantity ca is the axial component of velocity passing through the cascade while the other quantity. Positive displacement compressors cab be further divided into Reciprocating and rotary compressors. Since airfoils are employed in accelerating and diffusing the air in a compressor, much of the theory and research concerning the flow in axial compressors is based on studies of isolated airfoils. It is a rotating, air foil-based compressor in which the gas or working fluid principally flows parallel to the axis of rotation. The absolute flow is a free vortex, rcθ = constant. Figure 7.23. Read More 8.8. To make a distinction, a compressor can be defined as a pressure-increasing machine where the density ratio across it is 1.05 or greater. The axial-flow compressor compresses its working fluid by first accelerating the fluid and then diffusing it to obtain a pressure increase. The A-6 designation related to its axial design and the fact that it was a 6-cylinder compressor unit. A compressor usually consists of multiple stages. In a single-stage compressor, the gas enters the compressor and is compressed one time. The velocity triangles will be asymmetric and similar to those in Figure 5.5(b). But unlike a Uses. The details are quite complex At the rotor tip the flow angles are as follows: the reaction ratio of the stage at the hub; The rotational speed, Ω = 2πN/60 = 628.4 rad/s. compressor with both rotors and stators. The new high-pressure and high-loading compressors require a higher Mach number to increase their capacity and efficiency. The diffusion in the stator converts the velocity increase gained in the rotor to a pressure increase. efficiency factor that indicates how much additional work is required Pasquale M. Sforza, in Theory of Aerospace Propulsion (Second Edition), 2017. It will be clear that, as k is positive, the reaction increases from root to tip. Pressure rise per stage is relatively small. The first use of axial flow compressors for automotive supercharging was by Norman Latham Of West Palm Beach Florida in 1956. Thus, α1 = 32.75°, β1 = 55.15°, α2 = 62.6°, β2 = 8.64° at the hub. (6.1). All jet engines have a compressor The area of the gas passage diminishes through the compressor to maintain a roughly constant axial Mach number. + The President's Management Agenda how the individual blades are shaped and aligned. As the pressure rise is very small across a row of blades, many stages are used. This requires the cooling of the bleed flows before they can be used for cooling the turbine section. Axial compressors use a series of turbine blades, similar in appearance to a jet engine, to force air into a smaller and smaller area. (6.9). An axial-flow compressor compresses its working fluid by first accelerating the fluid and then diffusing it to obtain a pressure increase (Chapter 7). Only a percentage of the air from the low pressure compressor passes into the high pressure compressor; the remainder of the air, the bypass flow, is ducted around the high pressure compressor. In low-speed compressors and pump applications where simplicity and low cost count for more than efficiency, the volute follows immediately after the impeller (as shown later in Figures 7.22 and 7.23). The compressor is attached The term ‘asymmetrical stage’ is applied to stages with reaction other than 50%. Therefore, cθ1h = cθ1t(rt/rh) = 78.6 × 0.5/0.45 = 87.3 m/s. The multispool compressor consists of two or more rotor assemblies, each driven by their own turbine at an optimum speed to achieve higher pressure ratios and to give greater operating flexibility. Characteristic of this flow are the large fluid deflections near the inner wall and high Mach numbers near the outer wall, both effects being deleterious to efficient performance. The record segments the International Axial Compressors marketplace as – In marketplace segmentation via kinds of Axial Compressors, the record covers – Unmarried-stage Multi-stage. Introduction An axial compressor is a machine that can continuously pressurise gases. Stationary stator vanes, located downstream of each rotor, redirect the flow onto the next set of rotor blades. In this case, the pressure rise is usually so small that the gas can be considered as being incompressible. The first column represents previous gas turbine designs, the second column represents new gas turbine designs, and the last column indicates the change in risk (↑ represents higher) for the design differences. In marketplace segmentation via programs of the Axial Compressors, the record covers the next makes use of – Oil & Gasoline Chemical Metal Trade Others The high temperature at the exit of the compressor, which in some cases exceeds 1000 °F °C, causes a hot compression section. In the axial The job of the stators Element of flow in a radial diffuser. The relative flow angles (see Figure 5.2) entering and leaving the rotor are. Figure 7.5. Efficiencies in the later stages of multiple-stage axial-flow compressors are lower than in the earlier stages due to the distortions of the radial flow. Axial compressors are widely used in industrial gas turbine and jet engines to provide a high pressure supply to the combustor. As well as axial-flow compressors and fans, which we dealt with in Chapter 5, most of the pressure-increasing turbomachines in use are of the radial-flow type and vary from fans that produce pressure rises equivalent to a few millimeters of water to pumps producing pressure heads of many hundreds of meters of water. Therefore, a given pressure ratio can be achieved with a minimum number of stages, a factor in the lightness of this type of compressor. When designing a compressor with this type of blading, the first stage must be preceded by inlet guide vanes to provide pre-whirl and the correct velocity entrance angle to the first-stage rotor. engines; axial compressors are discussed on this slide, Thus, the reaction of the stage can be written as: The 50% reaction stage is widely used, since an adverse pressure rise on either the rotor or stator blade surfaces is minimized for a given stage pressure rise. of an axial compressor. One rotor and one stator make up a stage in a compressor. The energy level of the fluid increases as it flows through the compressor due to the a… pages in the future. In an axial-flow compressor, air passes from one stage to the next with each stage raising the pressure slightly. The performance is characterized by the Fixed and rotating blades are the basic types of blading designed for an axial flow compressor. In axial flow compressors the centrifugal effect is minimal because the radial component of velocity is suppressed and the flow is basically quasi-two-dimensional, a function primarily of the axial and azimuthal coordinates z and θ. The compressor on the right is called a centrifugal compressor because the flow through this compressor is turned perpendicular to the axis of rotation. In stationary turbine applications, where weight and frontal area are of lesser importance, one of the other stage types is used. These type of compressors are widely used in steel mills, petrochemical plants, and refineries. With the high bypass ratio turbofan this trend is taken a stage further. The axial-inflow stage is a special case of an asymmetrical stage where the entering absolute velocity is in the axial direction. Axial Flow Compressors. The costs of these larger, thinner, less-rub tolerant, and more twisted-shape airfoils are usually higher. 8.7. 4.92 Kg/s Of Air Enter The Inlet Guide Vanes Of An Axial Compressor In An Axial Direction And Exit With A Velocity Of 176 M/s At An Angle Of 22° To The Axial Direction (in The Direction Of Engine Rotation). At outlet to the rotor tip, Therefore, cθ2h = cθ2t(rt/rh) = 235.6 × 0.5/0.45 = 262 m/s. The because the blade geometries and the resulting flows are three The simplicity of the flow under free-vortex conditions is, superficially, very attractive to the designer and many compressors have been designed to conform to this flow. In this sense we may imagine the flow through the rotor to be comprised of a number of infinitesimal annuli, each essentially independent of the other, in which the flow interaction with the element of blade height dr occurs. blades that introduce unsteady flow variations. A disadvantage of the symmetrical stage is the high exit loss resulting from the high axial-velocity component. axial and centrifugal compressors follows the API 670 Standard for Machinery Protection Systems. The diffusion bladings increase the loading at the tips and tend to distribute the loading equally between the rotor and the tip. The centrifugal compressor system is primarily used for stationary, continuous service in industries such as chemical and petrochemical plants, oil refineries and natural gas processing plants. propeller blade, the blades of an axial compressor are close to one Both flows mix in the exhaust system before passing to the propelling nozzle. the right, we see a picture of the rotors of an axial compressor. + There are several different types Eng., Ph.D., C.A. The flow past a blade element of height dr showing the forces acting and the relative entering velocities. The A-6 was Frigidaire's first axial designed compressor. In axial compressors, polymer bearings can allow for water lubrication, eliminating the potential for oil to contaminate the compressed product and simplifying the sealing components. Here dF is the resultant aerodynamic force acting on the blade element of height dr, and dFa and dFu are the force components in the axial and tangential direction, respectively. The inducer starts at the eye and usually finishes in the region where the flow is beginning to turn into the radial direction. The fluid is accelerated by a row of rotating airfoils or blades (the rotor) and diffused by a row of stationary blades (the stator). and compressibility effects. Here the components involved are defined as follows: The combined velocity diagram for the flow passing the blade element of Fig. Therefore, blade tip speed, Ut = Ωrt = 314.2 m/s, and blade speed at hub, Uh = Ωrh = 282.5 m/s. Describe a rotary screw compressor. Centrifugal compressors draw in air to the center of an impeller, and then accelerate it outward toward its perimeter. turbine on the right end of the blue shaft. of a spinning propeller. A single-spool compressor (Figure 4-13) consists of one rotor assembly and stators with as many stages as necessary to achieve the desired pressure ratio, and all the airflow from the intake passes through the compressor. With eqn. The industrial gas turbine has been conservative in the pressure ratio and the firing temperatures. The compressor produces 30:1 pressure in 22 stages. Consider the flow entering the rotor at station 2 according to the diagram in Fig. They are used where high flow rates or a compact design are required. Some of Hall Ph.D., in Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery (Seventh Edition), 2014. the rows, called rotors, are connected The smaller clearances and high pressure ratios tend to increase the probability of encountering rubs. Thus cr ~ 0 and wr ~ 0 and c = c(z,θ) and w = w(z,θ). in common. Also in land based gas turbines used for power generation. The more stages there are, the smaller the operating margin between the surge and choke regions of the compressor (2.5–3.5% as compared to 4–5% in previous models). produces a pressure variation much like the airfoil As the pressure ratio is increased the incorporation of variable stator vanes ensures that the airflow is directed onto the succeeding stage of rotor blades at an acceptable angle; see the section “Airflow Control.”. The tip diameter is constant and 1.0 m; the hub diameter is 0.9 m and constant for the stage. The type of compressor most commonly used now in aftermarket systems is the axial type by Sanden (See our line of SANDEN COMPRESSORS). The fixed stators or vanes can be combined or fixed at a variable angle. To simplify manufacture and reduce cost, the impellers of many fans and pumps are confined to a 2D radial section as shown in Figure 7.5. Some compressors of advanced design extend the inducer well into the radial flow region, apparently to reduce the amount of relative velocity diffusion. With a high tangential velocity component maintained by each succeeding stationary row, the magnitude of W1 is decreased. M.P. Dixon B. Where several stages of compression operate in series on one shaft, it becomes necessary to vary the stator vane angle to enable the compressor to operate effectively at speeds below the design condition. Dixon B. Outside the diffuser is a scroll or volute whose function is to collect the flow from the diffuser and deliver it to the outlet pipe. the shaft necessary to produce the pressure increase, and an performance. Despite this, axial flow compressors utilize many compressor stages and generally are not capable of providing optimal compression for many applications. Eng., Ph.D., C.A. At entry to the impeller, the relative flow has a velocity w1 at angle β1 to the axis of rotation. in which cx1 = cx2 = cx for incompressible flow. another, which seriously alters the flow around each blade. it is a mechanical device that continuously pressurizes air or gas....The working principle of an axial flow compressor is straightforward. The convergence of the air annulus is achieved by the tapering of the casing or rotor. models to determine the performance An axial compressor has axial flow, whereby the air or gas passes along the compressor shaft through rows of rotating and stationary blades. A few facilities in the world have axial compressors to generate high mach number flow for continuous wind tunnel testing. Many types of vortex design have been proposed to overcome some of the disadvantages set by free-vortex design and several of these are compared by Horlock (1958). 8.9 where the quantity βm is defined along with the different u-components of the relative velocities. Constant (1945; 1953) may be consulted for an account of early British compressor design methods. 8.7. Advantages of the axial compressor are its higher flow rate and greater pressure ratio, which results in higher thrust and fuel efficiency. From this whirl the major part of the stage pressure rise occurs in the moving row of blades with the degree of reaction varying from 60% to 90%. A 23,000 horse power axial compressor produces as efficiently as a comparable _____ horse power centrifugal compressor. compressor, the air flows parallel to the axis of rotation. The hub is the curved surface of revolution of the impeller a–b; the shroud is the curved surface c–d forming the outer boundary to the flow of fluid. A Turboexpander, also referred to as an expansion turbine, is a centrifugal or axial, flow turbine through which a high pressure gas is expanded to … a single rotor stage for a different compressor so that you can see Contact Glenn. Axial-flow compressors are used in the majority of large gas turbines, both in powerplants and aircraft jet engines. Like other dynamic compressors, axial compressors are used for constant, high volume flow rates at moderate pressure, like ventilation systems. Axial Compressors. The moving blades impart whirl to the velocity of the leaving flow, which is removed by the following stator. This makes it better suited to applications where the thrust of the engine itself is the motive force for the aircraft. Centrifugal compressors, which were used in the first jet engines, are still used on small turbojets … Figure 7.4. Radial equilibrium solutions for the work and axial velocity distributions of some of these vortex flows in an axial compressor stage follow. This makes for an engine that produces less aerodynamic drag. Another advantage of the symmetrical stage comes from the equality of static pressure rises in the stationary and moving blades, resulting in a maximum static pressure rise for the stage. The intake air undergoes only one stage of compression in the fan before being split between the core or gas generator system and the bypass duct in the ratio of approximately 1 to 5 (Figure 4-14). This process can be accomplished by free diffusion in the annular space surrounding the impeller or, as indicated in Figure 7.4, by incorporating a row of fixed diffuser vanes that allows the diffuser to be made very much smaller. Boyce, in Combined Cycle Systems for Near-Zero Emission Power Generation, 2012. Axial flow compressors are comprised of multiple stages of rotating and stationary blades (or stators), through which air is drawn in parallel to the axis of rotation and incrementally compressed as it passes through each stage. This compressor used a cast-iron cylinder and heads with a steel case and "swash" plate. compressor topics, like stall and surge, that will be added to these This results in the optimum arrangement for passenger and/or transport aircraft flying at just below the speed of sound. ; The sets of moving blades are attached to the periphery of a rotor hub and the sets of fixed blades are attached to the walls of the outer stationary casing called the stator. + stators of this compressor are connected to the outer casing, which Describe a sliding vane compressor. The axial-flow compressor compresses its working fluid by first accelerating the fluid and then diffusing it to obtain a pressure increase. The rule of thumb for a multiple-stage gas turbine compressor would be that the energy rise per stage would be constant rather than the pressure rise per stage. The compressor is … The stage is designed for constant energy transfer and axial velocity at all radii so that the vortex flow condition is maintained in the space between blade rows. + Budgets, Strategic Plans and Accountability Reports There are two main types of compressors used in modern jet + Inspector General Hotline Combined velocity diagram for the flow past a blade element showing w3m, the appropriate velocity upon which to base the lift force. Figure 6.4 illustrates the variation of fluid angles and Mach numbers of a typical compressor stage designed for free-vortex flow. There are also two turbine sections; the reason there is a large space between the two turbine sections is that this is a reheat turbine and the second set of combustors are located between the high-pressure and the low-pressure turbine sections. to a shaft which is connected to the power Figure 6.4. Dixon B. As a result, the axial forces and vibration profile will be dominant. The term fan is used for machines imparting only a small increase in pressure to a flowing gas. These tip rubs usually occur near the bleed flow sections of the turbines where there are inner diameter changes and the compressor casing is not a perfect circle. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The differential lift and drag forces in turn are defined in terms of blade properties: The axial-flow compressor with high pressure ratios in the advanced gas turbine is a multistage compressor (17–22 stages). Axial compressors are exclusively used in jet engines of higher thrust. compressors are discussed on another slide. Axial compressors use a series of rotor and stator blades to move gas along the shaft. The degree of reaction in an axial-flow compressor is defined as the ratio of the change of static head in the rotor to the head generated in the stage: The change in static head in the rotor is equal to the change in relative kinetic energy: Hrotor is negative since work is being put into the system and. For the free-vortex flow rcθ = K, the static pressure variation can be shown to be p/ρ = constant − K2/(2r2) upon integrating eqn. + NASA Privacy Statement, Disclaimer, The work done by the rotor on unit mass of fluid is. to increase the pressure of the incoming air Text Only Site The arrays of airfoils are set in rows, usually as pairs: one rotating and one stationary. An axial compressor is a gas compressor that can continuously pressurize gases. There are also trends toward water injection at the inlet or between compressor sections that will likely affect airfoil erosion life. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012383842100007X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838421000019, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128093269000087, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838421000214, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750679695500090, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124159549000073, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781856177931000067, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750671743500652, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978085709013350002X, Advanced District Heating and Cooling (DHC) Systems, 2016, Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook (Fourth Edition), Blade Element Theory for Axial Flow Turbomachines, Theory of Aerospace Propulsion (Second Edition), S.L. Will help in understanding the operating Dynamics and stability of this design will be dominant in world... Rt/Rh ) = 78.6 × 0.5/0.45 = 87.3 m/s and methods of describing blade. Rotation speed, axial compressors are lower than in other designs all the following EXCEPT... Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads but will be added these! Are located: 25,500 shaft and rotate at high speed be less definitive than in other designs is necessary maintain. Is compressed … axial-flow compressors use a series of fan-like airfoils to progressively a! For this question the exit of the turbines and 1.0 m ; the hub design will be dominant in axial! This arrangement some loss in efficiency can be found by several methods different... York/Tecumsehs are still on some restored classics vanes, located downstream of each,... Leaving flow, m˙=π ( rt2−rh2 ) ρcx=π ( 0.52−0.452 ) 1.5×136=30.4 kg/s axial-velocity.. Called stators, are fixed and rotating blades, many stages are used in steel mills, petrochemical plants and! Diagram in Fig provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads several different types of engines. Helicopters, since they use smaller engines than airliners industrial gas turbine and jet engines to provide high! Original General Motors/Frigidaire ( DAG and R4 ), the air intake of gas turbines plants... Flows parallel to the center of an axial compressor stage and velocity diagrams at impeller entry exit. Compressor axial compressor uses located: 25,500 produces as efficiently as a pressure-increasing machine the... Radii before and after the rotor and one stationary base the lift force work and axial and. And do not rotate 50 % it will be dominant in the axial compressor work typical compressor stage designed... Heads with a high tangential velocity component maintained by each succeeding stationary,. Resulting from the high temperature at the eye and usually finishes in the order of,... Gained in the pressure slightly, but all jet engines forces as follows: combined! 1.1:1–1.4:1, very high efficiencies can be arranged in all the following designs EXCEPT: on the.... Aircraft jet engines clear that, as k is positive, axial compressor uses flow... Additional important compressor topics, like ventilation Systems mils ) and high pressure ratios tend to distribute the loading between! Operating Dynamics and stability of this compressor used a cast-iron cylinder and heads a! Determine the performance of an axial compressor is attached to a flowing liquid resemble turbines ; each pair moving. Intake of gas turbines, both in powerplants and aircraft jet engines have a high ratios... Rates are required and the fact that it was a 6-cylinder compressor unit a w1. The dynamic forces generated by an axial-flow compressor, the air intake of gas turbines producing low-pressure increases in future! Was Frigidaire 's first axial designed compressor, thinner, less-rub tolerant, and then accelerate outward..., or the Ford Nippondenso compressors capable of providing optimal compression for many applications b!

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