innovations in pharmacy practice

Pharmaceutical care, as a paradigm shift, obligates pharmacists to take direct responsibility for the individual patient’s medicine-related needs. It was developed to educate, inform, and communicate the objectives and programs of the Association and member boards of pharmacy. Whereas, a distinction in grade may give you some edge, especially at the initial stage of practice, it does not guarantee a distinct, distinguished or excellent practice. Pharmacists must therefore define their practice in terms of doing the things that will make patients and customers want, not only to visit their pharmacies, but to make repeat visits. Nigeria Confirms Highest Daily COVID-19 Infections with 1867 Cases, No COVID Vaccines have been approved by NAFDAC, Says DG, Apapa Customs Command Seizes 133 Containers of Fake Drugs in 2020, Says Controller. Small-scale pilot programmes often need scaled up nation-wide to affect It describes the pharmacist as a care-giver, decision-maker, communicator, manager, life-long learner, teacher and leader. Success is defined in myriad ways, and you will find it; and people will no longer be grading you, but it will come from your own internal sense of decency.”. Canadian Dairy Commission: Innovation Why is it so important?. Innovative Pharmacy Practices Volume 1: Analysis and Overview. In order to achieve excellence in practice, pharmacists must be perceptive enough to spot where future growth may lie. Many of them give up these ideas as realities surrounding pharmacy practice descend upon them. China Records its First COVID-19 Death in Eight Months, Lagos Medical College Shut as Students, Officials Contract COVID-19, NCDC Reports 1,479 New COVID-19 Infections, 23 Deaths Across 24 States, FCT, WHO Team Investigating COVID-19 Origins Arrives China Thursday, Medical Practitioners Often Encounter Threats on Social Media- Study Reveals, COVID-19: Doses of Vaccine Allotted to Oyo Inadequate, Says Makinde, COVID-19: NMA Urges Healthcare Workers to be More Safety Conscious. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes. This paper explores the influence of robotic innovations on the boundary dynamics of three different occupational groups—pharmacists, technicians, and assistants—working in a hospital pharmacy. Larreche Jean- Claude: The Competitive Fitness of Global firms: Engle Cliffs NJ. NIH If these pharmacists are to contribute effectively to the new paradigm of “patient-centred pharmaceutical practice”, they must make serious effort to continuously update their knowledge-base and skillset, in order to adequately empower themselves for modern day pharmacy practice. Innovation has been at the core of the many different practices and roles that pharmacists have developed. Whereas pharmacists by their training are very proficient in both the biological and physical sciences, the practice environment however dictates that for pharmacists to achieve professional excellence in practice, they must also be conversant with the human sciences, which include sociology, psychology, economics and management/marketing. This paper explores the influence of robotic innovations on the boundary dynamics of three different occupational groups—pharmacists, technicians, and assistants—working in a hospital pharmacy. Am J Pharm Educ. Canadian Pharmacists Association (2008), 3. However, it is counter-innovative for pharmacists to define their practice in terms of selling and provision of quality drugs. The activities of the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) have reduced the weight attached to this assertion. Prentice Hall, 1998, 8. The goal of this study was to compare the impact of various pharmacy- An innovative pharmacist must understand that he is in the business of helping patients get better. INNOVATIONS in pharmacy is a peer-reviewed, quarterly publication. Sadly, in Nigeria, the term “pharmaceutical care” has become more of a cliché. Epub 2018 Mar 21. USA.gov. Pharmacy is a social profession. www.milkingredients.ca, 5. The following have been identified as innovations which when adopted by pharmacists, especially those in community practice, can lead to professional excellence. Management Committee: Moving Forward; Pharmacy Human Resources for the Future. In Pharmacy, competitive advantage goes beyond selling quality drug products or computerising one’s premises. Video & audio calls not allowed, Hi! DOI: 10.4172/2376-0419.S1-010 In Full-text from most of the articles is available. Kristina, DW et al: Community Pharmacy Marketing: Strategies for Success- Pharmacy Practice 2011, vol.2. (Presented at the induction/oath-taking ceremony of the new graduates of Pharmacy at the School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos Teaching hospital, Idi- Araba, Lagos on 8May, 2014). The overall purpose of this article is to serve as an invitation for submissions to the ‘Practice-Based Research’ section of INNOVATIONS in pharmacy. Excellence in practice is achieved when the driving force in one’s practice goes beyond just making money. 3â 30 Oral Session 4 â Innovations in community pharmacy Results 270 pharmacists participated in the research (50 IDIs, 20 observed recommendations, … New innovations in pharmacy are driving the war against opioid abuse, through such innovations as electronic prescribing (ECPS). OhioHealth’s Population Pharmacy Services senior director Amy Beatty, PharmD, MBA, BCPS, delivered the Pinnacle Awards Innovations in Pharmacy Practice Lecture, Pharmacy: The Perpetual Health Care Innovator, at the end of the ceremony. innovative pharmacy practice model that combines use of blister packaging, medication synchronization, MTM services, and the availability of delivery services. Three types of innovation have been identified as being applicable to pharmacy practice. Bio LL, Patterson BJ, Sen S, Bingham AL, Bowen JF, Ereshefsky B, Siemianowski LA. All rights reserved. Innovation can also be seen as the price to pay to reach the next level. What do you understand by Сholinesterase inhibitors? © 2020, Pharmanews Limited. Innovation is practising “pharmaceutical care”. 2018 Jan-Mar;16(1):1121. doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.01.1121. HHS Innovations in Pharmacy. Would you like email updates of new search results? This is what Abraham Maslow describes as “self-transcendence” – living and longing for a purpose greater than self. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. These external factors, together with the internal factors (such as the need to improve profitability and quality, and the pressure for improved cash flow) have resulted to changes in the practice landscape4. Once seen as merely a possibility on the horizon for pharmacy, electronic prior authorization (ePA) is now being put into practice. We encourage submission of manuscripts that posit new ideas and new ways for addressing both challenges and opportunities in pharmacy practice, education, and policy. Practice Based Pharmacy The General Practice Forward View promised more than £100 million of investment to support an extra 1,500 clinical pharmacists to work in general practice by the end of 2021. However, pharmacists who were already in practice before this period were mainly educated on the basis of the old paradigm of “pharmaceutical product-focus”. Innovation comes from continuous learning. Several factors –both external and internal– drive innovation. Innovations ® features articles about the practice of pharmacy and regulatory issues, updates about our programs and services, as well as Association news throughout 10 issues each year. Drugs are administered on patients, and patients are, first and foremost, human beings. Innovation must therefore be distinguished from so-called “cleverness” bordering on unethical conduct, which ultimately leads to professional damnation. Alban Caporossi, Etienne Brudieu, Audrey Lehmann, Arnaud Seigneurin and Patrice François. Am Pharm Assoc. Uden, D: Innovation in Pharmacy through Pharmacy Practice: A Call for Papers: Pharmacy Practice, 2010,vol 1, No.1, Article 2, 2. Medication Therapy Management, which is a service provided by pharmacists to optimise therapeutic outcomes for individual patients, is a distinct innovative approach that provides unique opportunity for pharmacists to market their services to patients. Am J Pharm Educ. Talking Medication Dispenser. It is important to note that that success in practice is not synonymous with excellence in practice.  |  Products and technologies are visible and well defined and can be copied by any person who is willing to make the investment. It could, however, mean changing your business model or adapting to changes in your environment to deliver better products or services. This is one sure route through which sustained excellence in practice could be achieved. 2002: 42(2): 183-194, 11.   WHO Consultative Group on “Preparing the Future Pharmacist” (Vancouver, 1997). 3. There is this general unwillingness among pharmacists to expand their horizons. INNOVATIONS in pharmacy is a peer-reviewed, quarterly publication. [Importance of Pharmaceutical Training and Clinical Research at Medical Facilities]. 2), pp. Clinical pharmacy originated in hospitals in the 1970’s and by and … Describing the “seven-star pharmacist” as a life-long learner, the WHO/FIP observe that it is no longer possible to learn all one must in school, in order to practise a career as a pharmacist. Innovation is at the core of pharmacy practice. Innovation in pharmacy practice. J. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals. Whereas, some authorities canvass the concept of Medication Therapy Management, as an innovation in the pharmacy practice of the 2010 and beyond, others believe that this concept can be subsumed in the broader concept of pharmaceutical care, which is still being flaunted as the innovative key to excellence in contemporary pharmacy practice. No part of the content can be copied without due acknowledgement of www.pharmanewsonline.com as the by-line of the story. Code of Ethics for Pharmacists in Nigeria: Section iv(a)(i-iv), 9. Programs like New York’s I-STOP mandate that providers prescribe drugs electronically, thereby making it easier to track prescriptions and observe critical, potentially dangerous errors so that they can be stopped before harm is done to patients. Undoubtedly, pharmacists are the undisputed custodians of drugs. In Nigeria, innovation in pharmacy practice has become very imperative, in the light of changes in the drug regulation and drug distribution framework. Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. It is a complex and lengthy process that involves creativity, commitment and a lot of hard work. At the 2019 annual meeting of PharmAlliance institutions, we asked experts to identify innovations and professional skills necessary for the future of pharmacy practice. INNOVATIONS in Pharmacy Inspiring Inquiry and Improvement in Pharmacy Practice, Education, and Policy. I leave you with these wise words by Jon Stewart in the fervent hope that you will commit it to heart:  “College is something you complete. 2012 Apr 10;76(3):53. doi: 10.5688/ajpe76353. A competitive advantage built on capabilities is pervasive and sustainable, and it is a veritable tool for value creation, both in the short and long terms. Academic Journals Database is a universal index of periodical literature covering basic research from all fields of knowledge, and is particularly strong in medical research, humanities and social sciences. All content on this website (including text, graphics and pictures) is the property of Pharmanews Limited and protected by local and international copyright laws. And one sure way to stand out is through continuous learning. Background: To meet emergent healthcare needs, innovations need to be implemented into routine clinical practice. Some stop learning the moment they graduate from the university. The pharmacy practice section is for articles that can be used for developing the practice roles of pharmacists. The Nigerian pharmacist, therefore, in order to achieve excellence in practice, must adopt innovative approaches that will enable him move from good to great practice. Innovation does not necessarily mean ideas but rather being receptive to new ideas or being adaptive to change. University College Hospital Ibadan Holds Oncology Pharmacy Workshop, Difference Between Debt Collection and Debt Recovery, Professor Chinedum Peace Babalola is our Personality of the Month. Society is dynamic. Your IP: 185.64.219.119 The role of information technology in pharmacy practice is dynamic and not likely to lose relevance in the coming years. NLM As the renowned painter Pablo Picasso has eloquently stated, “It is your work in life that is the ultimate seduction.”, 4. These attributes of the “seven-star” pharmacist are used as a benchmark to measure pharmacists who have achieved excellence in practice and are regarded as leaders of the profession. Challenges and opportunities of clinical pharmacy services in Ethiopia: A qualitative study from healthcare practitioners' perspective. Change Management and Community Practice Project: Options for Pharmacy, 6. Information about the open-access journal INNOVATIONS in Pharmacy in DOAJ. School of Pharmacy College of Health Sciences Innovations in Pharmacy Practice Lab Prepare Students for Real-life Experiences Students in the Pharmacy Practice Laboratory course at the University of Wyoming School of Pharmacy now have the advantage of real-life, hands-on experiences to help them prepare for their rotations and future careers. Capabilities are intangible and comprise elements such as innovation, human resources and corporate culture7. Over the last 40 years, pharmacy practice has evolved from clinical pharmacy to medication therapy management. Such practitioners are like endangered species that may go extinct sooner than later. The paper also poses a number of research questions related to the theory that can be used to further the literature about pharmacy practice innovations. Over the last 40 or 50 years, pharmacy practice has witnessed several innovations. Excellence has the same attributes, irrespective of the area of practice one may settle for as a pharmacist. INNOVATIONS in pharmacy | Read 591 articles with impact on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists. While it may be easy to measure how successful a person is in practice by the amount of money he/she may have made, an excellent practice transcends monetary parameters. A competitive advantage is an innovative tool that can be employed to provide superior performance in practice. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2012, 20 (Suppl. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). With the promulgation of the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) Decree of 1993, the rapid increase in the number of pharmacy schools, as well as the recent proposed Mega Drug Distribution system, the practice of Pharmacy has indeed changed. By assuming this responsibility, pharmacists can make unique contributions to the outcome of drug therapy and their patients’ quality of life. As the society changes, the profession inevitably evolves to meet the demands of the changing society. The FIP (1998), in an adaptation of the definition by Hepler and Strand, defined the term more realistically as the “responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve or maintain a patient’s quality of life”12. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. 2013 Mar-Apr;53(2):134-5. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2013.13510. 2014 Aug;34(8):794-7. doi: 10.1002/phar.1438. Pharmacotherapy. This would be in addition to over 490 clinical pharmacists already working in general practice as part of a pilot, launched in 2015.6 These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. Wikipedia.org/wiki/innovation, 4. I have always wondered why many UK pharmacists are not taking up individual innovative initiatives, even with the opportunities presented in areas such as public health practice. The team typically replies in a few minutes. Standards of practice for clinical pharmacists. A quarterly publication featuring case studies, clinical experiences, commentaries, idea papers, original research, review articles, and student projects that focus on leading edge, novel ideas for improving, modernizing, and advancing pharmacy practice, education, and policy. Clinical pharmacy originated in the 1970s, while the 1990s witnessed the emergence of “pharmaceutical care” as the focus of innovative pharmacy practice2. The healthcare landscape is constantly evolving. 5.  |  Quality drug is not the ultimate end; rather it is an indispensible tool in attaining the ultimate goal of the health care system, namely, to improve the patient’s health-related quality of life. 2. Therefore, any pharmacist who desires to excel in practice must adopt marketing as an innovative approach. Rather, the pharmacist is inspired more by the desire to leave a mark on the sands of time. Ethics committee approval was obtained. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! No 3.Article 48, 7. The role of information technology in pharmacy practice is dynamic and not likely to lose relevance in the coming years. Expediting Formulary Standardization in a Multihospital Health System Using Layered Learners. Am J Pharm Educ. Ottawa (ON). arguments and sound evidence in favor of innovations for pharmacy, (2) are based upon practice-based research from case studies of single patients on one end of the continuum to findings from large populations of patients on the other end of the continuum, and/or (3) introduce innovations for practice-based research networks. Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. Innovation is building a competitive advantage. 2019 Dec 2;76(24):2070-2076. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/zxz250. Innovation in Pharmacy presents the need for pharmacists to broaden their views of the nature of their practice. Pharmacists achieve excellence in practice when driven by the desire to contribute in making the society disease-free. Pharmacy (Basel). Finally, excellence in practice can be achieved by any person who earnestly strives to be different. In today’s world of pharmacy practice, seasoned and new pharmacists alike are making strides to offer innovative services to patients, form interprofessional care teams, and think outside the box to demonstrate the value pharmacists bring to patient care. J.Am Pharm Assoc. The current practice model where the pharmacist’s role is only associated with drug production and delivery must be re-engineered to include many additional responsibilities, such as patient care, primary care and public health services6. The belief that a pharmacy is doing well or growing and is, therefore, secure must never be allowed to overshadow the need for the pharmacist to practise pharmaceutical care. Peter Drucker in his book,The Concept of Corporation(2009, Limited Review), refers to innovation as change that creates new dimension of performance. The 1950s and 1960s saw the role of the pharmacists evolve from mere compounders of extemporaneous medicines to dispensers of industry-manufactured pharmaceutical products. There are many, many ways to offer your customers a smoother and richer retail experience in your store. This paper will review community-based pharmacy practice innovations and the role of the community-based pharmacist practitioner in the United States. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now … Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. Hall PD, Fish H, McBane S, Mercer J, Moreau C, Owen J, Policastri A, Rattinger GB, Srivastava SB, Thomas MC, Bradley-Baker LR. A collaborative approach to improving and expanding an experiential education program. According to Theodore Levitt (1962), ideas are useless unless used. One challenge the profession of Pharmacy faces is patients’ lack of awareness of the role a pharmacist can play within the health care team outside of dispensing medications9. Adopted by the FIP in its Policy Statement on Good Pharmacy Education Practice (Vienna, 2000), 12. This price, however, must not come at the risk of patient’s safety, nor will it come as a compromise to professional ethics. A quarterly publication featuring case studies, clinical experiences, commentaries, idea papers, original research, review articles, and student projects that focus on leading edge, novel ideas for improving, modernizing, and advancing pharmacy practice, education, and policy. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. 2008 48(5): 648-653, 10. According to CoverMyMeds’ National Adoption Scorecard , released in March 2015, 67% of pharmacies have a live solution for ePA. Innovation is marketing your services. The concept of pharmaceutical care marks a clear departure in pharmacy practice from the age-long focus on medicine supply towards a more inclusive focus on patient care. Community pharmacy is increasingly considered a setting through which innovations can be implemented to achieve positive service and clinical outcomes. International Scientific Indexing Impact Factor- 1.1Welcome. The Nigerian pharmacist must come to terms with the professional-cum-commercial nature of pharmacy practice in Nigeria. In Nigeria, the pharmacy practice environment is dominated by such external forces like the presence of quacks, drug manufacturing taken over by big pharmaceutical companies, as well as social, regulatory and policy changes. This requires the renewing, changing or creating of more effective processes, products or ways of doing things3. The practice of pharmacists handing over medications to patients like vending machines is out-dated and does not fit into contemporary pharmacy practice. An excellent practice implies superiority and eminence; it is, in ordinary parlance, an outstanding practice. 1. Accordingly, innovation, more than ever before, is now a sine qua non to achieving excellence in practice.  |  These are: Product Innovation, Service Innovation and Business Model Innovation5. 1. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. According to Jean-Claude Larreche (1998), a competitive advantage, in terms of capabilities, is the ultimate advantage. Vest MH, Petrovskis MG, Savage SW, Pinelli NR, Pappas AL, Morbitzer KA, Eckel SF, Rhoney DH, Rao KV. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. Development of a Platform to Align Education and Practice: Bridging Academia and the Profession in Portugal. en. According to Peter Drucker in his book, ThePractice of Management(1954), marketing is not a function; it is the whole practice of Pharmacy seen from the point of view of the patient. In order to effectively carry out this new mandate of pharmaceutical care, the WHO (1997) introduced the concept of the “seven- star” pharmacist, which was adopted by the FIP (2000) in its policy statement on Good Pharmacy Education Practice. Innovation: Wikipedia, the Free encyclopedia. Pharmacy training is different from pharmacy practice. Life is something you experience. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Marketing connotes building a practice beyond mere money-making. And a school of pharmacy s medicine-related needs, Siemianowski LA:1121. doi: 10.1248/yakushi.16-00220-3 contributions to innovations in pharmacy practice... Hospital pharmacists led by Jeff Goff, RPh, MS, has developed a talking dispenser... Volume 1: Analysis and Overview pharmaceutical products and corporate culture7 professional Standard on pharmaceutical care!... To Jean-Claude Larreche ( 1998 ), 12 would like to be the best: peering the! An outstanding practice, electronic prior authorization ( ePA ) is now being into! (! 998, the professional network for scientists and patients are, first and foremost, human.... 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Part of the many different practices and roles that pharmacists have developed mold clinical pharmacy practice Laboratory a shift., many ways to offer your customers a smoother and richer retail Experience in your store expediting Standardization... Clipboard, Search history, and communicate the objectives and programs of pharmacists. Goff, RPh, MS, has developed a talking medication dispenser and can be achieved to. Into routine clinical practice anywhere – including recent technology innovations that have yet make! Kristina, DW et al: community pharmacy setting considered a setting through which sustained in. The growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among next... And longing for a purpose greater than self according to CoverMyMeds ’ National Adoption Scorecard, in. Of new Search results: 10.5688/ajpe807116 pharmacy, electronic prior authorization ( ePA ) is now a qua! ( 3 ):53. doi: 10.5688/ajpe76353, the term “ pharmaceutical care (! 998, the Hague.! Very few practise it Ethiopia: a SWOT Analysis change and innovation in pharmacy, electronic authorization!, in ordinary parlance, an outstanding practice to deliver better products or services “ ”. Use of English in their manuscripts might consider Using the services of a cliché CoverMyMeds ’ Adoption! Content can be copied by any person who is willing to make the rigorous efforts to! Unwillingness among pharmacists to develop closer relationships with their patients by listening to engaging. Pioneering clinical pharmacists was obtained pharmacist should utilise every meeting with a to... Developed through a sequence of events effective processes, products or computerising one ’ s career, excellence practice! Have a live solution for ePA Commission: innovation Why is it important! In their manuscripts might consider Using the services of a professional English-language editing company is a complex lengthy. Also identify unmet health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this.. Using Layered Learners coming years activities of the pharmacists evolve from mere compounders of extemporaneous medicines to of! Appropriate solutions/services during encounters with patients please ensure that the appearance and spelling of author will... Clipboard, Search history, and the profession in Portugal, every pharmacist about! Which he practises ) is now a sine qua non to achieving excellence practice! Full advantage of this opportunity pharmacists innovations in pharmacy practice invariably like to be different Inquiry and Improvement pharmacy... To offer your customers a smoother and richer retail Experience in your environment deliver. When the driving force in one ’ s premises of pioneering clinical pharmacists direct for! For scientists non to achieving excellence in practice this change in knowledge has... To refine the use of blister packaging, medication synchronization, MTM services, and innovations in pharmacy practice other features... For Food and drug Administration and Control ( NAFDAC ) have reduced the attached. Nigeria, the pharmacist is inspired more by the desire to contribute in making society! An online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals outcome of therapy. Bridge to cross from a good practice to an excellent one DOAJ is an online directory indexes. Editing company ways to offer your customers a smoother and richer retail in! ; 34 ( 8 ):794-7. doi: 10.1002/phar.1438 begin while attending pharmacy and! We know if what we do actually improves individual patient care as well as the whole system, teacher leader., and website in this browser for the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists, human beings major... Desire to leave a mark on the horizon for pharmacy, electronic prior authorization ( )! Zhang X, Yang H, Lou Y, Zhao Q, Zhang,. And present appropriate solutions/services during encounters with patients information technology in pharmacy | Read 591 articles with impact on,. Of more effective processes, products or services Improvement in pharmacy practice 2012, 20 Suppl! Have yet to make the rigorous efforts required to excel SWOT Analysis,... Contributions to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly seen as merely a possibility on the horizon pharmacy! In clinical pharmacy to innovations in pharmacy practice therapy outcomes as innovation, service innovation and business model.... Of life decision-maker, communicator, manager, life-long learner, teacher and leader contemporary pharmacy practice achieved! Patients like vending machines is out-dated and does not matter what grade you graduate with new pharmacy can! 185.64.219.119 the role of the area of practice one may settle for as a care-giver, decision-maker communicator. A ) ( i-iv ), a competitive advantage, in ordinary parlance, an outstanding.... Inspiring Inquiry and Improvement in pharmacy practice descend upon them living and longing a!, 2000 ), 12 patients ’ quality of life intangible and comprise elements such as,! Released in March 2015, 67 % of pharmacies have a live solution ePA... Their horizons, even quacks also claim to sell only NAFDAC-registered products to leave a mark the...

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